José María Martínez González, Francisco García Sabán, Javier Ferrándiz Bernal, Juan Carlos Gonzalo Lafuente, Jorge Cano Sánchez, Cristina Barona Dorado. Valencia University Medical and Dental School, Valencia, Spain.
To study the composition, surface characteristics and response to removal torque of an implant surface subjected to hydrofluoric acid etching and posterior passivating with hydrofluoric and nitric acid.
Study design: Twelve implants were initially selected and their physico-chemical characteristics were evaluated by means of energy-dispersive X-rays (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition, 24 implants – 12 measuring 8 mm and 12 measuring 10 mm in length – were implanted in 6 Beagle dogs. Twelve implants were removed after a recovery period of 6 weeks, followed by removal of the remaining 12 implants after 12 weeks, using a torque calibrator (Gauge Tonichi® model BGT150CN-S) with a force registry range of 0-150 Ncm.
EDS analysis of the surface chemical composition only revealed the presence of titanium in the etched surfaces.
In the same way as with the surfaces of other dental implants, XPS analysis revealed traces of other elements present in the surface, fundamentally carbon. Following dual acid etching, the surface showed the roughness resulting from acid action, with a morphology that proved to be quite homogeneous. The roughness values obtained exceeded 1 µm. The mean removal torque values after 6 weeks were 79.7 Ncm for the 8 mm implants and 115 Ncm for the 10 mm implants.
After 12 weeks, these values increased to 101.2 Ncm and 139.7 Ncm, respectively.
Hydrofluoric and nitric acid etching affords optimum surface haracteristics comparable to those of other surfaces. The recorded removal torque values raise the possibility of human clinical application for early or immediate loading procedures.